PAPER TITLE :ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) IN SUDAN SAVANNAH

APPLIED TROPICAL AGRICULTURE | VOLUME 22 NUMBER 1 2017

Paper Details

  • Author(s) : Shaibu, A.S.*, Muhammad, I.H. and Adnan, A.A.
  • Abstract:

The success of any breeding program depends on the ability to determine germplasm diversity and genetic relationships
among breeding materials. Genetic diversity is an invaluable aid in crop improvement. The study was aimed at identifying
genetic diversity among twenty-two genotypes of maize sourced from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA).
The genotypes were evaluated for variability in growth, yield and yield components in 2016 cropping season in the Sudan
Savannah using a randomized incomplete block design with 3 replications. Principal component Analysis (PCA), cluster
analysis, discriminant analysis and genotype by trait (GT) Biplot were used to assess the genetic diversity between the
genotypes. A highly significant difference (P<0.01) was observed between the genotypes in all the traits studied except for
days to emergence. The principal component revealed that the first six factors account for 93% variability. Factor 1 gave
maximum variability and factor 2 and factor 3 can be utilized for hybridization program. The principal component biplot
reveals the relationship among traits and the distance of each variable in determining variability among hybrids. The
cluster diagram reveals four distinct groups. Group I consisted of 6 genotypes, group II, 6 genotypes, group III, 7
genotypes and group IV consisted of 3 genotypes. Both principal component and cluster analyses revealed the genetic
diversity among the genotypes and identified genotypes that can be selected for hybridization and improvement of maize.
Key words: Cluster analysis, genetic diversity, genotype by Trait, Principal component analysis